The iPhone brings convenience like no other object, giving us the ability to carry hundreds of tools/devices everywhere we travel, ready to use at a moments notice.

‘Instead’ considers the breadth of the iPhone’s usefulness, cataloguing the vast range of its functionality, much of which is already being taken for granted.

However, not all of the iPhone’s innovations are necessarily positive for us as social beings, this aspect is also explored. The ‘Instead’ project embraces both the celebratory highs and perils concerning one of the most powerful and important inventions throughout history.


Stock market Banking Business card Rolodex


Letter Telephone Heliograph Billboard


Light meter Camera


Game system Movie player Television Magazine


Pedometer Personal trainer White noise generator


Atlas Encyclopedia Book Dictionairy


Scanner Speed alert Filing cabinet Internet router


Travel documents Wireless mouse Netbook Photo album


On-campus education Instrument tuner Universal remote control Weather service


Gaming guide


Map GPS Compass


Personal organizer Calendar Notepad


Clock Alarm clock Kitchen timer Stopwatch


Magnifier glass Flashlight Spirit level USB

As CDs overtook cassette tapes in both sound quality and popularity, Sony saw the need to update its popular Walkman line for a new generation.

In 1984, on the one year anniversary of the introduction of compact discs, Sony introduced their D-50 portable CD player, the first ever portable digital music player. The D-50 was actually my own first foray into portable music players, and it truly was a marvel. Just slightly larger than a CD case, the player offered all of the great audio quality that digital recordings had to offer.


Back in 1954, I.D.E.A. released the very first portable transistor radio. The Regency TR-1 radio measured 3” x 5” x 1.25” and featured an analog AM tuner. In a strange prediction of things to come (I’m talking to you iPod), the Regency came out in a variety of colors over the years, ranging from a simple bone white to pearlescent lavender and lime colors.

The TR-1 tuned stations by a simple gold dial and played through a low-fidelity monophonic speaker. It retailed for $49.95 back in the day, which would make it cost around $325 in today’s dollars.


Leave it to Apple to stand back, look at what other companies were doing wrong, and to vastly improve upon their mistakes. The original iPod, released in 2001 combined a 5GB hard drive with a rechargeable battery pack and a paradigm breaking user interface. Marketed by Steve Jobs as “1000 songs in your pocket,” the iPod didn’t necessarily do that much differently under the hood from other MP3 players, but it had a sleek design (by 2001 standards), a unique and simple navigational system, and the Apple brand name to back it all up.


Did you know?

The compass was invented by the Chinese
during the Qin dynasty (221-206 B.C.)
Click the images for information


The Egyptians are the first group of people that we can reasonably prove took timekeeping seriously as a culture. Many believe that the Sumerians were thousands of years ahead of the game, but proof of this is only speculative.

Around 3500 B.C., the Egyptians built obelisks—tall four-sided tapered monuments—and placed them in strategic locations to cast shadows from the sun. Their moving shadows formed a kind of sundial, enabling citizens to partition the day into two parts by indicating noon. They also showed the year’s longest and shortest days when the shadow at noon was the shortest or longest of the year.


Since the hourglass was one of the few reliable methods of measuring time at sea, it is speculated that it was used on board ships as far back as the 11th century, when it would have complemented the magnetic compass as an aid to navigation. However, the earliest unambiguous evidence of their use appears in the painting Allegory of Good Government, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, from 1338.

From the 15th century onwards, hourglasses were used in a wide range of applications at sea, in churches, in industry, and in cooking; they were the first dependable, reusable, reasonably accurate, and easily constructed time-measurement devices. The hourglass also took on symbolic meanings, such as that of death, temperance, opportunity, and Father Time, usually represented as a bearded, old man.[94] Though also used in China, the hourglass’s history there is unknown.[95] The Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan used 18 hourglasses on each ship during his circumnavigation of the globe in 1522

Quartz watch

The introduction of the quartz watch in 1969 was a revolutionary improvement in watch technology In place of a balance wheel which oscillated at 5 beats per second, it used a quartz crystal resonator which vibrated at 8,192 Hz, driven by a battery powered oscillator circuit. In place of a wheel train to add up the beats into seconds, minutes, and hours, it used digital counters. The higher Q factor of the resonator, along with quartz’s low temperature coefficient, resulted in better accuracy than the best mechanical watches, while the elimination of all moving parts made the watch more shock-resistant and eliminated the need for periodic cleaning.

The first digital electronic watch with an LED display was developed in 1970. Accuracy increased with the frequency of the crystal used, but so did power consumption. So the first generation watches had low frequencies of a few kilohertz, limiting their accuracy. The power saving use of CMOS logic and LCD displays in the 2nd generation increased battery life and allowed the crystal frequency to be increased to 32,768 Hz resulting in accuracy of 5–10 seconds per month. By the 1980s, quartz watches had taken over most of the watch market from the mechanical watch industry.


With respect to human history, timekeeping is a relatively recent human desire—probably 5000 to 6000 years old. It was most likely initiated in the Middle East and North Africa.

A clock is defined as a device having two qualities:
A regular, constant or repetitive process or action to mark off equal increments of time. Early examples of such processes included movement of the sun across the sky, candles marked in increments, oil lamps with marked reservoirs, sand glasses (hourglasses), and in the Orient, small stone or metal mazes filled with incense that would burn at a certain pace. A means of keeping track of the increments of time and displaying the result.

Relaying the history of time measurement has a degree of inaccuracy, much like clocks themselves. What follows is, if not completely accurate, as close as many researchers can ascertain.